The Origin of the Three Crowns of Sweden
IN spite of differences between the feudal system of Sweden and that of continental Europe, many of its modes and manifestations are identical. The use of armorial bearings probably spread to Sweden from Germany. The first known family arms date from 1219. Heraldic decoration found a little earlier on the, seal of King Erik Knutsson (1208— 1216). One side presents two crowned leopards facing each other. They probably represent the royal dignity, but are not intended as a real armorial charge. No arms are known for Erik's successor, John Sverkersson. At his death in 1222 he was succeeded by the six year old Erik Eriksson, son of Erik Knutsson and of Rikissa, daughter of King Waldemar I of Denmark. He bore three crowned leopards in pale, the arms of his mother's family. Erik Eriksson was deposed between 1229 and 1234 by Knut the Tall, who was probably a member of the Erik family. His arms are known from brachteates and the tinctures are known from a tapestry with the image of his son Holmger. They were Azure three fesses, the one in the middle argent, the other two or. These are obviously a family coat of arms used also as state arms.
In 1250 Erik Eriksson was succeeded by his sister's son Waldemar (1250—1275), the first of the Folkunga dynasty. Waldemar did not use the arms of his family, but kept to the three leopards of his predecessor. On his secretum he used two crowns in pale. These are certainly not an armorial charge; they are not placed on a shield, but stand freely in the field of the seal. Their purpose is to symbolise the King. The other rulers of the Folkunga dynasty bore the family arms. Azure three bends sinister argent, over all a lion rampant or. Magnus Ladula (1275—1290) enriched the coat by crowning the lion, a proof of the importance of the crown as the symbol of royalty. The three crowns which Magnus placed on his seal in the space between the shield and the edge, and the single crown on his seal of justice had probably the same meaning. It is clear from the legend on the seal SIGILLUM: MAGNI : DEI : GRACIA : REGIS : SWEORUM that the Folkunga arms used as State arms represented the whole of Sweden and were not specially connected with only the southern part, the Götaland.
The arms so far used, those of Knut the Tall and the Folkunga family, were Swedish in origin. They were family arms converted by regal and official use into the arms of the State. A different situation arose when in 1363 Duke Albert II of Mecklenburg, who had married a sister of Magnus Eriksson, attacked his brother-in-law, and the next year secured the proclamation of his second son Albert as King of Sweden. What arms was he to bear? Duke Albert II of Mecklenburg bore in different combinations the arms of Mecklenburg, Schwerin and Rostock. His son Albert was entitled to bear these arms as a feoffee of his father or as his heir. But as King of Sweden he would need an insignia of his own representing this territory. Although through his mother he had some claim to the Folkunga arms, he could hardly with decency adopt the arms of the family he had driven out of the land, even though those very arms had been used as the arms of the State. He had to create a new coat and very naturally used as the charge on the shield the crown, a symbol of his new dignity. It was immaterial whether there should be one crown or three, but a combination of three similar charges was common in the middle ages, and Albert decided upon such a pattern. The title-page of the rhymed chronicle of Ernest von Kirchberg (1378) in the State archives of Schwerin shows that he had a banner made with this device. He is here shown with his father. The latter holds in his left hand a staff with the three banners of Mecklenburg, Rostock and Schwerin, while with his right hand he passes to his son a banner Azure, three Crowns or. Two of the crowns one above the other are next the staff, the third larger is in the middle of the banner. The son grasps the staff with his left hand above his father's. He wears a crown of the same type as those on the banner.
Albert also used crowns on his seals. In Sweden he had two seals, both designated secreta. One of them has on the shield only one large crown, the other has three crowns arranged two and one. In Mecklenburg Albert used in 1385 and 1397 two seals containing a shield quarterly of Sweden, Mecklenburg, Rostock, and Schwerin; Sweden being represented by three crowns arranged two and one. This representation is identical with the Royal Swedish arms in the Wapenboek van Gelre (1334 — 1370) with the exception that the two lower quarters have been inverted probably to produce a better colour effect. The crest according to Gelre is Two yellow oxhorns each with six small banners each Azure three crowns or in pale.
Albert of Mecklenburg was defeated and captured by Margaret, Queen of Norway and Denmark, at Falköping (1389). Under this able woman the three Scandinavian countries were united. One of her secreta has a shield charged with three crowns, but this is said to represent the union. In another seal Sweden is represented by the Folkunga arms. Her successor Erik of Pomerania (1396—1439) used both the State arms — three crowns, and those of the Folkungar. His second great seal has a shield quartered by a cross over all an inescutcheon. The inescutcheon shows the arms of Norway, whereas the four quarterings show respectively the three leopards of Denmark, the three Crowns of Sweden, the bendlets and lion of the Folkungar, and the griffin of Pomerania. The ship's flag of this time formerly in the Maria Church at Lubeck shows the arms of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Pomerania quartered by a white cross, and Sweden is represented by three crowns.
In 1436 the Swedes renounced their allegiance to King Erik. A new State seal was needed. This, now in the Historical Museum at Stockholm, represents the patron saint of the country, Saint Erik wearing armour and an open crown. In his right hand he holds a lance with a long fluttering pennon on which no charge is shown, his left hand rests on a shield on which there are three crowns arranged two and one. The legend Sanctus ericus svevorum gothorum rex Sigillum regni Svecie makes it clear that these are the arms of Sweden. The arms are held by the nation's patron saint at a time when the people stood in particular need of heavenly protection. The arms derived from the Swedish insignia of Albert of Mecklenburg have come to represent the country. The case is parallel to that of the inhabitants of Styria, who carried the banner of their country against their lawful Duke. The seal, the so-called Great State Seal, was used by the Council down to the time of Gustavus Vasa.
Christopher of Bavaria (1440— 1448), who succeeded Erik of Pomerania, placed the three crowns of Sweden on one of the quarterings of his shield. His successor, Charles Knutsson Bonde, had two different seals. Both had a quartered shield with an inescutcheon of the Bonde arms Or a boat gules with a bunch of peacock feathers vert at the prow and at the stern. The quartered shield in the one case was 1 and 4 The three crowns of Sweden, 2 and 3 The Folkunga arms; in the other 1 and 4 The three crowns, 2 and 3 The lion with an axe, of Norway. Thus like his predecessor Erik, Charles lets Sweden be represented by the territorial arms. He attributes lesser importance to the Folkunga arms, which he later removed to make room for the Norwegian coat. In the Norwegian seal for the first time the quarters are separated by a narrow cross in a way that has become usual. In the purely Swedish seal the legend Secretum Karvli dei gracia suevorum guthorumqz regis has suggested to some that the three crowns represent the land of the Swedes (Svealand) and the Folkunga arms the land of the Goths (Götaland). This is erroneous, for as we have seen each coat when used separately has represented the whole of Sweden.
Further proof of the use of the three crowns as a symbol of Sweden is found in the seals at the time of the union with Denmark. The " daler" of Sten Sture (1512) has on one side the three crowns. Gustavus Vasa sometimes used the arms of the three crowns with a small inescucheon in the middle on which he placed the arms of Vasa. Sometimes he quartered the three crowns with the Folkunga arms with those of Vasa on an in- escucheon. This type in the main prevailed as later dynasties retained the quartered shield and placed their arms on an inescucheon. Charles XIV John was not content with placing his arms as Prince of Ponte-Corvo on the inescucheon, but divided the latter per pale, placing the Vasa arms in the dexter half and his own princely arms in the sinister. These combined arms are, however, primarily those of the King and dynasty. The arms par excellence of the country are the three crowns. This was emphasised by the Ordinances of 1713 constituting the various Government Departments, and has been wholly carried through in our time, when the so-called lesser State arms, viz. Azure three crowns or, arranged two and one. have definitely been considered the true State arms.
The Coats of Arms of Sweden
THE Kingdom of Sweden has two coats of arms: the Great Coat of Arms and the Small Coat of Arms (see Fig. 1), as they are called in the Act concerning the coats of arms of the realm of May 15, 1908. Both coats of arms are of ancient origin. The small one can be traced six centuries back in history while the great one is well over five hundred years old. In giving an account of the two coats of arms as described in the Act, it is thus historically correct to begin with the Small Coat of Arms. Furthermore, this forms part of the great one, which is a combination of several coats of arms.
The Small Coat of Arms shows three crowns of gold in a blue field. The escutcheon bears a royal crown and may be surrounded by the insignia of the Order of the Seraphim. These additions will be discussed in connection with the description of the Great Coat of Arms which has several such exterior ornaments.
The coat of arms with the three crowns was first used by Albrekt of Mecklenburg in 1364 when he became King of Sweden after having banished the native Folkung dynasty from the throne. It should be noted that the three crowns as introduced by King Albrekt became the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Sweden without at the same time being that of the reigning family. The House of Mecklenburg bore a crowned bull's head. A coat of arms, originally, was not that of the realm but of the king. If the dynasty which first adopted a coat of arms governed a country for any length of time, the dynasty's coat of arms gradually came to be recognised as that of the country. Thus the lion with the axe, from having been the arms of the Sverre dynasty, became the national coat of arms of Norway. It was not influenced by subsequent reigning families. The three lions in the shield strewn with hearts which appeared in the arms of the royal family of the Valdemars became Denmark's coat of arms and have remained as the Small Coat of Arms and as the most important part of the Great Coat of Arms. Originally, the same conditions prevailed in Sweden. The coat of arms of the Folkung dynasty had become internationally recognised as the Swedish coat of arms. Developments, however, took a different turn with Albrekt of Mecklenburg. The three crowns came to be regarded as the first real Swedish coat of arms, created to designate the territory. The King used it the first time in a seal from the year 1364 in which the shield has a helmet with mantling and crest (Fig. 2). Of great importance in this connection is the fact that in addition to the seal with the three crowns, Albrekt used another seal with a coat of arms showing only one crown (Fig. 3). Although only a single example of this seal from the year 1376 has been found, the two types can very well have come into use at practically the same time. Long before this, however, one, two or three crowns had been used as an emblem on coins minted by Swedish kings. This may have exerted a certain influence on the heraldic procedure.
There has been much speculation about the significance of the coat of arms with the three crowns, and the discussion in regard to its origin has been going on since the sixteenth century without a definitive result having been attained. In 1917 and 1935 Harald Fleet-wood maintained, to some extent in agreement with Hans Hildebrand (1885), that the crown was a symbol of royal power, adducing numerous parallels from medieval coins and seals. In his opinion the number of crowns should not be considered of decisive importance. The coat of arms with the three crowns could be explained solely by its function as a symbol of royalty. Unfortunately, Fleetwood did not limit himself to this factual argumentation but went on to suggest that this coat of arms might have been that of King Erik, the patron saint of Sweden, who reigned in the middle of the twelfth century. This hypothesis, however, finds no support in the sources and has obscured the merits of Fleetwood's work.
Other scholars have assumed that the triad of crowns is symbolic in nature and have advanced various theories in explanation of it. It has been suggested that the three crowns represented the three crowned divinities in the heathen temple at Uppsala or that they symbolize the union of the three Scandinavian kingdoms during the late Middle Ages, or the three ancient territories in Uppland whose privilege it was to elect the king of the Swedes.
Finally Dr. Heribert Seitz in his book De tre kronorna (The Three Crowns, Stockholm, 1961) derives the coat of arms of King Albrekt from that of King Arthur of British legend. Albrekt's coat of arms shows the same arrangement of the crowns and the same tinctures as King Arthur's. Though Arthur is supposed to have flourished in the fifth or sixth century, the coat of arms ascribed to him is not, as shown by the material collected by Seitz, recorded until the beginning of the fourteenth century.
Seitz traces the heraldic device of the three crowns to the thirteenth century tomb of the Three Wise Men in the cathedral of Cologne. His argument is briefly summarized in his paper "Three Crowns as a European Symbol and as the Swedish Coat of Arms", Recueil du 5e Congrès International des Sciences Généalogìque et Héraldique à Stockholm (Stockholm, 1961).
As we have seen, there have been many attempts to interpret the three crowns but none is quite convincing. It seems possible that there is something radically wrong about the way the problem has been approached. It has always been assumed that King Albrekt created a completely new coat of arms, but closer investigation shows that through his inherited coat of arms, Albrekt must already have been familiar with the crown as a heraldic symbol. As mentioned above, the princes of Mecklenburg bore a crowned bull's head in their coat of arms (Fig. 4). When, most likely for political reasons, Albrekt saw that he could not use his ancestral bull's head in Sweden, it was only natural for him to retain its crown as a symbol of the royal power. We might perhaps say that the Swedish coat of arms arose through a heraldic diminution devised by its creator, a diminution of his own family coat of arms. This must have been the natural point of departure from which he could proceed. One of the component parts of the family coat of arms was the crown. The three crowns of Sweden are a further development of this crown.
The above theory was put forward in my paper "The Coats of Arms of Sweden" which appeared in the 1963 autumn number of the American-Scandinavian Review in a series of articles dealing with the coats of arms of the Scandinavian countries. In Heraldisk Tidsskrift (Copenhagen, 1962), Ernst Verwohlt, incidentally, had suggested that there might be some connection between the three crowns of Sweden and the crowned bull's head of Mecklenburg but his conclusions differ from mine.
In my American article, which is here reprinted in revised form, I had no occasion to give an account of the material on which my theory was based. I have now done so in some articles published in Sweden as well as in a paper read at the Seventh International Congress of Genealogy and Heraldry at the Hague in 1964, entitled "L'origine mecklembourgeoise des trois couronnes de Suède" which will appear in the forthcoming proceedings of the Congress. The interesting diminution observed on the medieval seal of the city of Stockholm may afford a parallel to the way in which King Albrekt proceeded. The seal of 1376 shows a king's head but in the fifteenth century the crown appears alone in the escutcheon of the seal (Figs. 5 and 6). Of great interest in this connection is also the coat of arms of the city of Malmö from 1437 which was based on the arms of King Erik, Duke of Pomerania and exhibits a similar diminution (griffin > griffin's head). It should be noted that both monarchs were of North German origin and consequently had the same heraldic traditions.
The Great Coat of Arms consists of a main shield, divided quarterly by a fillet cross formy of gold and of an escutcheon placed upon the centre with the dynasty coat of arms of the royal family. The first and fourth fields of the main shield which contain the three crowns are identical with the Small Coat of Arms. The second and third fields show in blue three silver bends sinister wavy, over all a golden crowned lion. Originally, this was the arms of the above-mentioned Folkung dynasty which reigned in Sweden between 1250 and 1363. This arrangement of the Great Coat of Arms occurs as early as in King Karl VIII Knutsson's seal of 1448 (Fig. 7) and has been in use ever since. As often happens when two or more coats of arms are combined in a shield, fields of the same tincture adjoin each other, something which heraldry strives to avoid. In order to separate the four blue fields of the main shield the golden cross has been added.
It is possible that the flag of Sweden owes its origin to this composition. On a polychrome sculpture from the time of Karl Knutsson in which the king is shown holding his coat of arms as King of Sweden and Norway, the cross is golden.
Karl Knutsson placed his own family coat of arms in a smaller shield upon the centre. Ever since the reigning dynasty's coat of arms has had its place there.
The Bernadotte dynasty's coat of arms has for almost 150 years appeared on the centre shield in the Great Coat of Arms (frontispiece). It is divided per pale into two fields. In the first the coat of arms of the royal Vasa family (1523-1654) is found. The Vasa coat of arms shows a so-called vase of gold in a field, tierced bendwise by blue, silver and red. This enigmatic figure occurred already in the family's medieval coat of arms and may represent a shield clasp or a cramp iron. In modern times the vase has been shown in many different ways, as a lily, a fascine, or a sheaf of grain. Karl XIV Johan (1818-1844) inserted the Vasa arms in his dynastic coat of arms as a reminder of his predecessor and adoptive father, King Karl XIII. The latter had prided himself on his descent from the Vasa family, the native dynasty which laid the foundations of modern Sweden and brought the country to its position as a great power through Gustavus Adolphus. The second field of the Bernadotte dynasty coat of arms is blue and shows a bridge of silver emerging from waters of silver and above this an eagle of gold underneath the constellation of Charles's Wain (The Big Dipper), also in gold. The bridge designates the South Italian principality of Ponte Corvo which was bestowed upon Marshal Bernadotte by Emperor Napoleon in 1806. The eagle, perched on a flash of lightning, is a heraldic symbol of dignity which was reserved by Napoleon for those of the rank of prince. The bridge and the eagle were parts of Bernadotte's coat of arms during his French period. In Sweden the upper part of the field was strewn with stars which were later on arranged to represent Charles's Wain. At the time of the Russian attack in the fateful year of 1808 this constellation was chosen as a symbol of Sweden's eternal existence by the poet Esaias Tegnér:
This symbol became especially popular through its allusion to the first name of the new Crown Prince, Karl — a name that had been borne by so many famous Swedish kings. Charles's Wain, or as it is called in Swedish, Karlavagnen, adds a Swedish accent to the Bernadotte dynastic coat of arms much in the same way as do the Vasa arms. It is a Northern counterpart to the Southern Cross in the national emblem of Brazil.
It remains now only to describe the attributes to the escutcheons of the coats of arms. These can be traced to different epochs in history. The Royal crown is closed. It was Erik XIV who, at his coronation in 1560, exchanged the open crown of the Middle Ages for this particular kind. The two crowned lions which support the escutcheon of the Great Coat of Arms also date back to the latter part of the sixteenth century. In the Act of 1908 it is specifically stated that these lions must have forked tails which emphasizes their Renaissance origin as distinct from the medieval Folkung lions in the second and third fields. The insignia which are hung around the escutcheons of the coats of arms belong to the Order of the Seraphim, instituted in 1748. The name has been taken from the celestial hosts of the Bible, and in the chain six-winged seraphim heads alternate with patriarchal crosses. The crowned mantle which envelops the Great Coat of Arms can also be traced to the middle of the eighteenth century. The Act stipulates that the Great Coat of Arms may be used without the insignia of the Order of the Seraphim, supporters or mantle; the small one without the insignia.
In its evolution the Great Coat of Arms can be compared to a cathedral to which generation upon generation has added new parts around a medieval nucleus, the additions being in accordance with the aesthetic ideals of each period. Inevitably, this has led to clashes in style but the various elements have a charm all their own and reveal to the properly informed the fascinating story of this coat of arms. Its development is closely intertwined with the eventful history of the nation.
(Drawings by Brita Grep, Stockholm. Casts of the seals by G. Fleetwood and S. Hallberg, photos by B. Lundberg, National Archives of Sweden.